Notetaking: Quotes from Four Sources (APA Style)

“I wanted to run out a string of American flags across the street on that day, for I knew there would be thousands of people passing the Museum with leisure and pocket-money, and I felt confident that an unusual display of national flags would arrest their patriotic attention, and bring many of them within my walls” (Barnum, 1886, 63).

“Now and then some one would cry out ‘humbug’ and ‘charlatan,’ but so much the better for me; it helped advertise me, and I was willing to bear the reputation” (Barnum, 1886, 65).

“On several occasions I got up ‘Baby shows,’ at which I paid liberal prizes for the finest baby, the fattest baby, the handsomest twins, for triplets, and so on. These shows were as popular as they were unique, and while they paid, in a financial point of view, my chief object in getting them up was to set the newspapers to talking about me, thus giving another blast of the trumpet which I always tried to keep blowing for the museum” (Barnum, 1886, 65).

“And first and foremost, he invented and brought to new levels the concepts of advertisement and promotion, without which the United States of America would not be recognizable as America. Ads, billboards, ploys, commercials, sales, posters, hawkers, and even tell-all autobiographies all have their source and encouragement in Phineas Taylor Barnum” (Belletini, 2000, para. 2).

“He went from defending slavery to becoming so concerned about abolition that he changed political parties… (Belletini, 2000, para. 3).

“Back when P. T. Barnum was alive, if you were a dwarf or had a beard on your feminine cheek, or if you were born without two or more of your limbs, no one ever saw you. You were kept hidden from polite society, considered a horror, whispered about by people who pitied you, or loudly reviled by people who were scared of you. P. T. Barnum was the first person in our nation’s history to get folks who were different from everyone else around them to ‘flaunt their differences’ and claim them as their uniqueness, not their shame… but ordinarily, they came to him and asked to be in his shows, for at least there they could do something” (Belletini, 2000, para. 6).

“He hired Charles Stratton, who became world-famous as General Tom thumb, a little person he taught to sing, dance, mime and act who eventually found an audience in President Lincoln and Queen Victoria and Prince Albert” (“P. T. Barnum: Did,” 2001, para. 2).

“’We ought to have a big show,’ he declared at age 60. ‘The public expects it and will appreciate it’” (“P. T. Barnum: Did,” 2001, para. 4).

“P.T. Barnum’s Grand Traveling Museum, Menagerie, Caravan, and Circus grossed a then-astounding $400,000 in its first year of operation” (“P. T. Barnum: Did,” para. 5).

“By its second year, the show was referred to as P.T. Barnum’s Traveling World’s Fair, Great Roman Hippodrome and Greatest Show on Earth, covering five acres and holding 10,000 seats” (“P. T. Barnum: Did,” 2000, para. 6).

“By 1850 he had become America’s most famous showman, promoting musical and theatrical tours and exhibiting a promiscuous collection of wonders at his ‘American Museum’ in New York. Barnum’s museum included the world’s largest and smallest man, the world’s largest elephant, a genuine mermaid from Fiji, and a wide range of other curiousities that blurred the line between hyperbole and deception. It was the biggest tourist attraction in New York, probably in the United States, until it burned down in the Civil War” (“P. T. Barnum Intro,” 1997, p. 4).

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