In-Text Citations, APA

Still using my aliens in the air scenario, here.

In-text citations

When you get an idea or words from a source, you must cite the source. You can do this in two different ways.

1. Jack Barrister wrote in his article that “aliens are the new colonizers” (2019, para. 6).

This tells me the author of the article. It tells me that you only used one article by this author and that the quote is in paragraph 6.

2. “Aliens are the new colonizers” (Barrister, 2019, para. 6).

Two articles, different years:

So what do you do if you have two articles by the same author? Perhaps Barrister wrote “Alien Friends” and “Who Are the Aliens?” If they were written in different years, then you would do this:

1. Jack Barrister wrote in his article that “aliens are the new colonizers” (2019,  para. 6).

OR

2. “Aliens are the new colonizers” (Barrister, 2019,  para. 6).

Two articles, same year

If both were written in the same year, then you would do this:

1. Jack Barrister wrote in his article that “aliens are the new colonizers” (2019, “Alien,” para. 6).

OR

2. “Aliens are the new colonizers” (Barrister, 2019, “Alien,” para. 6).

Sample paragraph

So a paragraph might look like this:

Not everyone agrees that humanity should make friends with the aliens. “Did the Native Americans make friends with the European settlers?” asks Bearfoot (2020, para. 9). He answers the same question by saying it did not matter. The Europeans hurt both the friendly Native Americans and the unfriendly ones (para. 10). The Cherokee never fought against any of the settlers, yet they were resettled out of their east coast homes into Oklahoma (para. 11). Barrister agrees with Bearfoot and states that “aliens are the new colonizers” (2019, para. 6). The aliens are coming to take over our homelands. Being friendly will not help us; it did not help the Native Americans (Bearfoot, para. 13).

When to use the author’s name:

Did you notice that I repeated Bearfoot’s name in the last citation but not in the second and third citations? I did this because the first, second, and third citations in the paragraph were all from Bearfoot. I didn’t need to cite his name each time. BUT after I used Barrister’s work, I had to cite Bearfoot again. If I did not, the last information would have been seen as coming from Barrister.

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